SERRA DA ARRÁBIDA
“The particular characteristics of the Arrábida massif, resulted (since the 1940s) in various attempts to protect the region, culminating in the creation of the Arrábida Reserve (Decree 355/71) on 16 August 1971, which covered the southern flanks of the mountains and cliffs of Risco. Recognizing the insufficient protection conferred on the area, Decree 622/76 was passed on 28 July 1976, creating the Parque Natural da Arrábida (PNArr). This classification envisioned the protection of the geological, forest, wildlife and landscapes, but also cultural and historical material located within the area.
Regulating decree 23/98, passed on 14 October 1998, further reclassified the nature park, expanding its coastal area and establishing the Arrábida-Espichel Marine Area, in order to support the objectives of the park, especially in the area surrounding the park. This included a diverse marine flora and fauna, such as the discontiguous zone of Cabo Espichel, which was included to protect coastal cliffs, endemic flora species, nesting areas for marine birds and preservation of rudimentary fossils.
The morphology of Arrábida permits a differentiation of microhabitats of distinct characteristics (Mediterranean/Atlantic), allowing the existence of species of evergreen, deciduous or semi-deciduous trees. Owing to the importance of the natural vegetation, that includes the last vestiges of varying Mediterranean vegetation, the area was included in a planning process early on, in order to save and preserve the ecosystems.”